Phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibition with cilostazol does not block in vivo oocyte maturation in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Carol Hanna, Shan Yao, Cathy M. Ramsey, Jon D. Hennebold, Mary B. Zelinski, Jeffrey T. Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective: Studies in mice suggest that cilostazol, an FDA-approved phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, might have a contraceptive effect within the approved dose range. We sought to evaluate the potential contraceptive effects of cilostazol in a nonhuman primate model. Study design: Adult female rhesus macaques were stimulated to develop multiple preovulatory follicles by administering human recombinant gonadotropins, and oocytes were collected by follicle aspiration 36 h after an ovulatory stimulus (human chorionic gonadotropin). Monkeys received no further treatment (controls) or the PDE3 inhibitor cilostazol at the maximum approved human dose of 100 mg twice daily starting 6 days prior to follicle aspiration. Recovered oocytes were scored for meiotic stage [germinal vesicle (GV) intact, GV breakdown], and metaphase II stage oocytes were fertilized in vitro and observed for normal embryo development. Results: Similar proportions of GV stage oocytes were recovered from control (27% ± 4%) and cilostazol (27% ± 9%)-treated females, and the proportion of embryos that developed into blastocysts was also similar for both groups (7% ± 5% control vs. 15% ± 8% cilostazol). Conclusion: Oral dosing of cilostazol tablets during controlled ovarian stimulation protocols did not prevent oocyte maturation or embryo development in macaques. Implications: Since administration of the maximum approved human dose of cilostazol (an FDA-approved PDE3 inhibitor) to macaques did not prevent oocyte maturation or fertilization, it is not likely that this dose would be contraceptive in women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)418-422
Number of pages5
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015


  • Germinal vesicle
  • Meiosis
  • Nonhormonal contraception
  • Nonhuman primate
  • cAMP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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