Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

J. David Kinzie

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    4 Scopus citations


    Since the description of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the second edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II) in 1980, PTSD has become a well-established and well-researched clinical condition. DSM-5 further refined the criteria but it is not consistent with the proposed 11th version of International Classification of Diseases criteria for PTSD. PTSD is fairly common and its prevalence increases with increase in traumatic events and is associated with alcohol abuse, depression, hypertension, and diabetes. The general theory of symptoms of PTSD is that the uncontrollable state of fear persists even after the threat is gone. Recent biological research indicates that biological factors such as genetics increased activity in the amygdale, reduced cortisol, and hyperactivity of adrenergic response occur in chronic PTSD. Psychological treatment has usually been trauma-focused behavioral therapy, but it is not clear if it is necessary to focus specifically on the trauma rather than supportive therapy of current life stressors. Medicine can reduce major symptoms such as nightmares, irritability, sleep disturbances, and needs to be used with psychotherapy. Future research will provide better understanding and treatments of this often chronic disabling disorder.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
    PublisherElsevier Inc.
    Number of pages5
    ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
    ISBN (Print)9780080970868
    StatePublished - Mar 26 2015


    • Behavioral therapy
    • DSM-5
    • Depression
    • Military
    • Nightmares
    • PTSD
    • PTSD treatment
    • Trauma
    • Veteran
    • Victim

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Social Sciences


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