Prevalence and virologic consequences of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Uganda

Guinevere Q. Lee, David R. Bangsberg, Conrad Muzoora, Yap Boum, Jessica H. Oyugi, Nneka Emenyonu, John Bennett, Peter W. Hunt, David Knapp, Chanson J. Brumme, P. Richard Harrigan, Jeffrey N. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Few reports have examined the impact of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in resource-limited settings where there are fewer regimen choices and limited pretherapy/posttherapy resistance testing. In this study, we examined TDR prevalence in Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda and assessed its virologic consequences after antiretroviral therapy initiation. We sequenced the HIV-1 protease/reverse transcriptase from n=81 and n=491 treatment-naive participants of the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) pilot study in Kampala (AMU 2002-2004) and main cohort in Mbarara (MBA 2005-2010). TDR-associated mutations were defined by the WHO 2009 surveillance mutation list. Posttreatment viral load data were available for both populations. Overall TDR prevalence was 7% (Kampala) and 3% (Mbarara) with no significant time trend. There was a slight but statistically nonsignificant trend indicating that the presence of TDR was associated with a worse treatment outcome. Virologic suppression (≤400 copies/ml within 6 months posttherapy initiation) was achieved in 87% and 96% of participants with wildtype viruses versus 67% and 83% of participants with TDR (AMU, MBA p=0.2 and 0.1); time to suppression (log-rank p=0.3 and p=0.05). Overall, 85% and 96% of study participants achieved suppression regardless of TDR status. Surprisingly, among the TDR cases, approximately half still achieved suppression; the presence of pretherapy K103N while on nevirapine and fewer active drugs in the first regimen were most often observed with failures. The majority of patients benefited from the local HIV care system even without resistance monitoring. Overall, TDR prevalence was relatively low and its presence did not always imply treatment failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)896-906
Number of pages11
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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