Racial Discrepancies in Overall Survival among Men Treated with 223Radium

Hanson Zhao, Lauren E. Howard, Amanda De Hoedt, Martha K. Terris, Christopher L. Amling, Christopher J. Kane, Matthew R. Cooperberg, William J. Aronson, Zachary Klaassen, Thomas J. Polascik, Adriana C. Vidal, Stephen J. Freedland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: Several recent studies on metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer demonstrated improved overall survival in black vs white men. 223Radium is Food and Drug Administration approved for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer based on a survival benefit in the ALSYMPCA (A Phase III Study of Radium-223 Dichloride in Patients with Symptomatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer with Skeletal Metastases) trial, in which 94% of participants were white. We identified a real world population of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer who received 223radium to compare differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes in black vs nonblack men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all men who received 223radium in the entire Veterans Affairs system. We compared treatment patterns and baseline characteristics between black and nonblack men. We used Cox models to analyze predictors of time from 223radium start to overall survival and time to skeletal related events. RESULTS: We identified 318 patients treated with 223radium, including 87 (27%) who were black. Median followup after 223radium initiation was 25.3 months (IQR 13.8-37.1). Black men were younger than nonblack men when starting 223radium (median age 67 vs 70 years, p <0.001) and they had higher prostate specific antigen (median 159.9 vs 90.2 ng/ml, p=0.014) and alkaline phosphatase (median 163 vs 135 IU/l, p=0.017). A greater proportion of black men received docetaxel prior to 223radium (77% vs 55%, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis black race was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from the time of 223radium initiation (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, p=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Black men had longer overall survival than nonblack men, although they appeared to receive radium later in the disease course. Further studies are required to verify our findings and explore biological differences between black and nonblack men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-337
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of urology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • African continental ancestry group
  • European continental ancestry group
  • mortality
  • neoplasm metastasis
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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