Self-Care and Health Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus

Min Kyoung Song, Sarah J. Ratcliffe, Nancy C. Tkacs, Barbara Riegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Studies show that self-care improves diabetes mellitus (DM) outcomes; however, previous studies have focused on self-care maintenance, and little is known about self-care management. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of DM self-care maintenance and management on number of hospitalizations and hospitalization days. A cohort design with secondary analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study 2002-2004 was used. Data from 726 adults with DM were analyzed with logistic regression and negative binomial regression adjusting for covariates. Self-care maintenance and management were significant determinants of hospitalization outcomes. Establishing a goal for HbA1c (self-care management) and eating ≥2 snacks or desserts per day (self-care maintenance) were associated with a decrease in hospitalizations (IRR = 0.860, p =.001; IRR = 0.914, p =.043, respectively). DM self-care maintenance and management influence health outcomes but in different ways. These data provide evidence that both elements are needed in the education of patients about DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-326
Number of pages18
JournalClinical Nursing Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • diabetes mellitus
  • health outcomes
  • self-care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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