Self-selected meal composition alters the relationship between same-day caloric intake and appetite scores in humans during a long-term ad-libitum feeding study

Angela M. Horgan, Gundula R. Palmbach, Julia M. Jordan, Holly S. Callahan, Kaatje E. Meeuws, David S. Weigle, Mario Kratz, Jonathan Q. Purnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effect of an off-protocol meal during a long-term ad libitum feeding study on changes in total caloric consumption and ratings of hunger and satiety. Methods: During the ad libitum portion of a 16 weeks research high-protein feeding study, 19 participants were allowed to eat up to one self-selected meal (SSM) a week instead of an intervention diet meal. The SSM was assessed for total caloric and macronutrient composition and compared to the intervention diet for 3 days before and after the SSM day. Visual analog scores rating daily hunger and fullness were collected and compared as well. Results: On the SSM day, the mean ± SD daily caloric intake increased by 262 ± 332 kcal compared to the previous study days (P < 0.001), with no changes in subjective appetite scores. The following day there was a slight but significant reduction in intake (− 58 ± 85 kcal, P = 0.008) compared to the average pre-SSM day with no change in appetite scores. On the SSM day, percent protein intake was inversely associated mean daily caloric intake (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.03). Conclusions: During a long-term, ad-libitum high-protein feeding study, one SSM lower in protein increased daily total caloric consumption with no impact on appetite ratings and incomplete caloric consumption during subsequent days. These data suggest that during ad-libitum feeding, a single meal change in protein content impacts the relationships between daily level of hunger, satiety and calorie intake. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05002491 (retrospectively registered 07/20/2021).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1003-1009
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume62
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Diet fat
  • Diet protein
  • Energy intake
  • Hunger
  • Macronutrient composition
  • Obesity
  • Satiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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