Sources of Disagreement Among Public and Private Agency Paramedics

Carol S. Federiuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The purpose of the study was to document the occurrence and causes of disagreements between paramedics in a tiered-response emergency medical services (EMS) system. Methods: This cohort analysis of disagreements between paramedics sampled 63 male public agency, 90 male private agency, and 41 female private agency paramedics. Paramedics responded to Likert-type items and one open-ended item concerning the occurrence of conflict between paramedics. Results: On-scene conflict between EMS personnel from public and private agencies was reported by 70% of the respondents. Conflicts that interfered with patient care were reported to occur more frequently between paramedics from different types of agencies. The most commonly mentioned subject of disagreement was patient treatment, followed by patient transport, interpersonal and interagency conflicts, and patient assessment. Conclusion: A majority of paramedics have experienced on-scene disagreements with other paramedics. Disagreements occur more frequently between paramedics from different agencies and encompass a wide range of issues concerning patient care and interpersonal relationships. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1995;10(2)92-95.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)92-95
Number of pages4
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • communication conflict
  • disagreement emergency medical services systems emergency medical technician paramedic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


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