“Staging” in Phalloplasty

Sara Danker, Nick Esmonde, Jens Urs Berli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The treatment of gender dysphoria related to genitourinary anatomy can be effectively treated with phalloplasty. A phalloplasty may include some or all of the following: penile shaft, glans, shaft urethra, perineal urethra, scrotoplasty, vaginectomy, testicular implants, and erectile devices. The literature does not currently support a gold standard for how best to stage these procedures. This article reviews current techniques for phalloplasty staging and proposes that a staged urethral reconstruction is a reliable technique that allows for potential complications to be managed individually, while minimizing the severity of complications and their impact on the outcome of the final reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-590
Number of pages10
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • Phalloplasty
  • Phalloplasty complications
  • Phalloplasty staging
  • Urethral reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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