Survey of Medical Services at Major League Baseball Stadiums

O. John Ma, Ronald G. Pirrallo, Jonathan M. Rubin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To analyze the availability and level of medical services for fans at major league baseball games in the United States. Methods: A 10-item questionnaire was sent to the operations managers of each of 28 major league baseball stadiums. The survey was distributed in cooperation with a major league baseball club. Telephone follow-up was used to complete missing responses. The survey addressed five areas of fan medical services: 1) health-care provider availability and compensation; 2) advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) capabilities, including equipment; 3) presence of on-site ambulance(s); 4) fan fatalities; and 5) alcohol consumption limitations. Results: Survey response was 100%. Healthcare providers are on-site at all stadiums: nurses (86%), physicians (75%), emergency medical technicians (EMTs, [68 %]), and paramedics (50%). Ninety-six percent use a combination of health-care providers. The most common medical teams are nurse + EMT + physician (25%) and nurse + EMT + paramedic + physician (18%). All health-care providers receive some form of compensation. All stadiums have at least one ACLS-certified provider; 96% have ACLS equipment. Ambulances are on-site 75% of the time. Sixty-eight percent of the clubs reported at least one fan fatality through the 1992 and 1993 seasons (mean 1.1, range 0–4). All clubs limit alcohol consumption; 96% use multiple approaches. The various approaches include: 1) specific inning discontinuation (86%); 2) maximum purchase (68%); 3) restricted sale locations (64%); and 4) crowd conduct (57%). Advertisement for responsible alcohol consumption is displayed at 75% of the stadiums; designated-driver programs exist at 46%. Conclusions: All major league baseball clubs provide medical services for fans. Furthermore, almost all stadiums have ACLS capabilities. Responsible alcohol consumption also is a recognized priority for fan safety. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1995;10(4):268-272.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-271
Number of pages4
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • advanced cardiac life
  • crowds
  • disaster preparedness
  • emergency medical services
  • injury prevention
  • mass gatherings
  • sports
  • stadiums
  • support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


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