Synchronous screen-based simulation in anesthesia distance education

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3 Scopus citations


Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of synchronous online screen-based simulation (SBS) in anesthesia education. Methods: The investigational cohort consisted of 12 second-year nurse anesthesia students enrolled in a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program. Pairs of students worked with a single instructor online using the same SBS employing a cloud-based peer-to-peer platform and high-fidelity software involving a graphical avatar. During each session, the instructor initially manipulated the avatar through the software scenario with educational pauses to communicate learning content. Thereafter, students proceeded through the same SBS by stating their desired actions, which were then implemented by the instructor. At the conclusion of each session, students were evaluated by an integrated software scoring system, and thereafter they completed a questionnaire rating their distance SBS experience. Results: Synchronous online SBS was performed in this manner without difficulty; it was accepted by students as a valuable adjunct to their in-person mannequin-based simulation (MBS) training; and it was perceived as a useful addition to their anesthesia education. Students identified significant value in the isolation of the cognitive component of learning by this teaching methodology. Lack of haptic learning, however, also was seen as a disadvantage of SBS compared to MBS. Students’ criticisms of SBS were largely unrelated to use of this technique with synchronous online education, but rather related to general limitations associated with SBS technology. There was a positive correlation between the students’ mean post-SBS rating and the automated SBS score (r = 0.832). Conclusion: Synchronous online SBS can effectively supplement MBS in an anesthesia training program. Its major perceived advantage appears to be an ability to isolate and reinforce appropriate cognitive skills related to intraoperative care including crisis management. Students who had higher mean post-SBS ratings also had higher automated SBS scores.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)945-956
Number of pages12
JournalAdvances in Medical Education and Practice
StatePublished - 2021


  • Anesthesia
  • Crisis management
  • Distance education
  • Screen-based
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Medicine(all)


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