Synthesis of di- and triacrylamides with tertiary amine cores and their evaluation as monomers in dental adhesive interfaces

A. P.P. Fugolin, Oscar Navarro, Matthew G. Logan, Vincent Huynh, Cristiane M. França, Jack L. Ferracane, Carmem S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Purpose/aim: In an attempt to increase the service life of dental adhesive interfaces, more hydrolytically and enzymatically-stable methacrylate alternatives, such as methacrylamides, have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate polymerization behavior, as well as mechanical and biological properties of experimental adhesives containing multi-functional acrylamides. Materials and methods: Multi-functional acrylamides (N,N-Bis[(3-methylaminoacryl)propyl]methylamine - BMAAPMA, Tris[(2-methylaminoacryl)ethyl]amine - TMAAEA, N,N’-bis(acrylamido) 1,4-diazepane - BAADA, N,N-Diethyl-1,3-bis(acrylamido)propane - DEBAAP) or HEMA (2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate - control) were added at 40 wt% to UDMA. 0.2 wt% DMPA and 0.4 wt% DPI-PF6 were used as initiators. Polymerization kinetics was followed in real-time in near-IR during photoactivation (320–500 nm, at 630 mW/cm2). Water sorption/solubility and flexural strength/modulus were measured according to ISO 4049. 1H NMR was used to assess monomer degradation kinetics. MTT assay was used to assess cytotoxicity against OD-21 and DPSC cells. Biofilm formation and adhesion were assessed by Luciferase Assay and Impingement technique, respectively. Solvated adhesives (40 vol% ethanol) were used to test interfacial adhesion strength. The results were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results: In general, the pure methacrylate mixture had higher rate of polymerization (Rpmax), degree of conversion (DC) at Rpmax, and final DC than the acrylamides. Flexural properties after water storage decreased between 11 and 65%, more markedly for acrylamides. Interfacial bond strength was greater and more stable long-term for the newly synthesized acrylamide formulations (less than 4% reduction at 6 months) compared to the methacrylate experimental control (42% reduction at 6 months). HEMA degraded by almost 90%, while the acrylamides showed no degradation in acidic conditions. Cytotoxicity and biofilm formation, in general, were similar for all groups. Conclusions: Despite demonstrating high water sorption, the acrylamide-containing materials had similar mechanical and biological properties and enhanced interfacial bond strength stability compared to the methacrylate control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-159
Number of pages12
JournalActa Biomaterialia
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Acrylamide
  • Adhesive interface
  • Dental restorations
  • Methacrylate
  • Micro-tensile bond strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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