The flipped-classroom approach to teaching horizontal strabismus in ophthalmology residency: a multicentered randomized controlled study

Randy Y. Lu, Tammy Yanovitch, Laura Enyedi, Nandini Gandhi, Matthew Gearinger, Alejandra G. de Alba Campomanes, Kara M. Cavuoto, Michael Gray, Pavlina S. Kemp, Evan Silverstein, Allison R. Loh, Leona Ding, Michelle T. Cabrera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The flipped-classroom involves watching prerecorded lectures at home followed by group learning exercises within the classroom. This study compares the flipped classroom approach with the traditional classroom for teaching horizontal strabismus didactics in ophthalmology residency. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized controlled survey study from October 2017 to July 2018, 110 ophthalmology residents were taught esotropia and exotropia sequentially, randomized by order and classroom style. Flipped classroom participants were assigned a preclass video lecture prior to the in-class case-based activity. The traditional classroom included a preparatory reading assignment and an in-person lecture. Residents completed three identical 5-question assessments (pretest, post-test, and 3-month retention) and surveys for each classroom. The primary outcome measured residents’ preferences for classroom styles; the secondary outcome compared knowledge acquisition. Results: In our study cohort, the flipped classroom resulted in greater at-home preparation than the traditional classroom (P = 0.001) and was preferred by 33 of 53 residents (62%); 45 of 53 (85%) wished to see the flipped classroom used at least 25% of the time. The exotropia flipped classroom scored higher than traditional classroom on the pretest (3.71/5 [74%] vs 2.87/5 [57%]; P < 0.001) and post-test (4.53/5 [91%] vs 4.13/5 [83%]; P = 0.01) but not the 3-month retention test (3.53/5 [71%] vs 3.37/5 [67%]; P = 0.48). The esotropia classroom styles did not differ on pre- or post-test but demonstrated higher scores for the traditional classroom at 3-month retention (3.43/5 [69%] vs 2.92/5 [58%]; P = 0.03). Advantages cited for flipped classroom include being interactive and engaging while incentivizing better classroom preparation. Conclusions: The flipped classroom method was received favorably by trainees and may complement traditional methods of teaching.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137.e1-137.e6
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


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