Thermoreversible Reverse-Phase-Shift Foam for Treatment of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage

Ross I. Donaldson, Eric M. Zimmermann, Timothy C. Fisher, Oliver J. Buchanan, Jonathan K. Armstrong, John S. Cambridge, Todd L. Graham, James D. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a leading cause of traumatic exsanguination, requiring emergent damage control surgery performed by a highly trained surgeon in a sterile operating environment. A self-expanding, intraabdominally deployed, thermoreversible foam is one proposed method to potentially task shift temporizing hemostasis to earlier providers and additional settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using Fast Onset Abdominal Management (FOAM) in a lethal swine model of NCTH. Methods: This was a proof-of-concept study comparing FOAM intervention in large Yorkshire swine to historical control animals in the established Ross–Burns model of NCTH. After animal preparation, a Grade IV liver laceration was surgically induced, followed by a free bleed period of 10 min. FOAM was then deployed to a goal intraabdominal pressure of 60 mm Hg for 5 min, followed by a total 60-min observation period following injury. Results: At the end of the experiment, the FOAM agent was found to be distributed throughout the peritoneal cavity in all animals, without signs of iatrogenic injury. The FOAM group demonstrated a significantly higher mean arterial pressure compared with historical controls and a trend toward improved survival: 82% (9/11) compared with 50% for controls (7/14; P = 0.082). Conclusions: This is the first study to describe the use of a thermoresponsive foam to manage NCTH and successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept feasibility of FOAM deployment. These results provide strong support for future, higher-powered studies to confirm improved survival with this novel intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-181
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Foam
  • Hemorrhage
  • Intraabdominal
  • Noncompressible
  • Reverse-phase-shift
  • Thermoreversible
  • Torso

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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