Triacrylamide-Based Adhesives Stabilize Bonds in Physiologic Conditions

F. S. de Lucena, S. H. Lewis, A. P.P. Fugolin, A. Y. Furuse, J. L. Ferracane, C. S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In this study, an acrylamide-based adhesive was combined with a thiourethane-based composite to improve bond stability and reduce polymerization stress, respectively, of simulated composite restorations. The stability testing was conducted under physiologic conditions, combining mechanical and bacterial challenges. Urethane dimethacrylate was combined with a newly synthesized triacrylamide (TMAAEA) or HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate; control) to produce a 2-step total-etch adhesive system. Methacrylate-based composites (70 wt% silanized filler) were formulated, containing thiourethane oligomers at 0 (control) or 20 wt%. Standardized preparations in human third molars were restored; then, epoxy replicas were obtained from the occlusal surfaces before and after 7-d storage in water or with Streptococcus mutans biofilm, which was tested after storage in an incubator (static) or the bioreactor (mechanical challenge). Images were obtained from the replicas (scanning electron microscopy) and cross sections of the samples (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and then analyzed to obtain measurements of gap, bacterial infiltration, and demineralization. Microtensile bond strength of specimens stored in water or biofilm was assessed in 1-mm2 stick specimens. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). HEMA-based materials had greater initial gap measurements, indicating more efficient bonding for the acrylamide materials. When tested in water, the triacrylamide-based adhesive had smaller gaps in the incubator or bioreactor. In the presence of biofilm, there was less difference among materials, but the acrylamide/thiourethane combination led to statistically lower gap formation in the bioreactor. HEMA and TMAAEA-based adhesives produced statistically similar microtensile bond strengths after being stored in water for 7 d, but after the same period with biofilm-challenged specimens, the TMAAEA-based adhesives were the only ones to retain the initial bond strength values. The use of a stable multiacrylamide-based adhesive led to the preservation of the resin-dentin bonded interface after a physiologically relevant challenge. Future studies will include a multispecies biofilm model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)647-654
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of dental research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • acrylamides
  • biofilm
  • dental adhesives
  • dental restoration failures
  • mechanical testing
  • tooth demineralization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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