Uncommon causes of thyrotoxicosis

Erik S. Mittra, Ryan D. Niederkohr, Cesar Rodriguez, Tarek El-Maghraby, I. Ross McDougall

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Apart from the common causes of thyrotoxicosis, such as Graves' disease and functioning nodular goiters, there are more than 20 less common causes of elevated free thyroid hormones that produce the symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis. This review describes these rarer conditions and includes 14 illustrative patients. Thyrotropin and free thyroxine should be measured and, when the latter is normal, the free triiodothyronine level should be obtained. Measurement of the uptake of 123I is recommended for most patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-278
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Graves' disease
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Thyroiditis
  • Thyrotoxicosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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