Updates in ocular surface tumor diagnostics

Afshan A. Nanji, Carolina Mercado, Anat Galor, Sander Dubovy, Carol L. Karp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


OSSN, CM, and CL are the most common malignant tumors of the ocular surface. Each has a classic clinical appearance, but may also present in a subtle or atypical manner, thus requiring more than slit-lamp examination for diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis of each of these lesions remains histology. However, numerous modalities including cytology, IVCM, AS-OCT, and UBM can assist with prompt diagnosis. Understanding the genetics of these tumors is also important, as it improves the development of targeted therapies. As technology continues to improve, we will likely see a host of new diagnostic modalities in the future and an expansion of their use for ocular surface pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-62
Number of pages16
JournalInternational ophthalmology clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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