What drives productivity loss in chronic rhinosinusitis? A SNOT-22 subdomain analysis

Naweed I. Chowdhury, Jess C. Mace, Timothy L. Smith, Luke Rudmik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Objectives/Hypothesis: Previous studies have shown declines in productivity due to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are correlated with disease-specific quality-of-life (QOL) measures. However, it is unclear which symptom domains contribute primarily to productivity loss. This investigation sought to assess the association between CRS-specific QOL subdomain impairment and productivity loss. Study Design: Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. Methods: There were 198 patients with refractory CRS enrolled between August 2012 and June 2015. Baseline QOL measures were obtained across five subdomains of the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). Lost productivity time was determined from patient-reported measures of annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time, and then monetized using annual daily wage rates from the 2012 US National Census and 2013 Department of Labor statistics. Results: Productivity losses correlated with impairments in both SNOT-22 psychological dysfunction (Spearman correlation coefficient [Rs] = 0.428, P <.001), and sleep dysfunction domain scores (Rs = 0.355, P <.001). Higher SNOT-22 total scores also significantly correlated with increased monetized productivity losses (Rs = 0.366, P <.001). The mean annual productivity cost was $11,820/patient, whereas patients with comorbid immunodeficiency ($23,285/patient), tobacco use ($23,195/patient), and steroid dependency ($18,910/patient) reported higher than average annual productivity costs. Multivariate linear regression found maximum annual productivity costs in adjusted psychological ($13,300/patient, P <.001) and sleep dysfunction ($9,275/patient, P <.001) domains. Conclusions: Impairments in sleep and psychological SNOT-22 domains correlate with productivity losses. Patients with comorbid immunodeficiency, smoking, and steroid dependency had higher than average productivity losses. Targeted management of psychological and sleep dysfunction in combination with standard symptom control may improve patient-centered care and reduce the annual economic burden of CRS. Level of Evidence: 2c. Laryngoscope, 128:23–30, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-30
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018


  • Sinusitis
  • chronic disease
  • cost of illness
  • efficiency
  • paranasal sinuses
  • quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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