A canine model for studying endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair

Dusan Pavcnik, Robert T. Andrews, Qiang Yin, Barry T. Uchida, Hans A. Timmermans, Christopher Corless, Naoyuki Toyota, Manabu Nakata, John Kaufman, Frederick S. Keller, Josef Rösch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to create an animal model of endoleak after stent-graft placement for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in which a large aneurysmal sac would be preserved for the testing of techniques for its percutaneous occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infrarenal AAAs were created in nine dogs by anastomosis of an isolated segment of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the abdominal aorta in combination with a large anterior patch from the external jugular vein. One hour later, animals underwent percutaneous implantation of polytetrafluoroethylenecovered Z stent endografts with three 3-mm-diameter holes through the fabric. Aortograms were obtained before and after surgery, after endograft placement, and at the time of animal sacrifice at 1 week or 1, 2, 3, or 6 months. Pressures within the aorta and the aneurysm sac were recorded before animal sacrifice. Gross and histologic evaluations of the specimens were then carried out. RESULTS: Immediately after endograft placement, all nine animals had artificial type III endoleaks with angiographic filling of lumbar arteries and veins. One animal died of surgical complications within 2 days of surgery and is not included in our data analysis. One aneurysm ruptured at 1 week. At completion of the study, six endografts were patent and two were occluded. The aneurysm sac had enlarged by approximately 50% in seven animals. At follow-up, type I endoleak was present in three animals, type II endoleak was present in three, and the artificial type III endoleak was present in all six animals with patent endografts. The pressure differential between aorta and aneurysm sac was 36 mm Hg, with a mean aortic pressure of 87 mm Hg ± 13.3 and a mean aneurysmal sac pressure of 51 mm Hg ± 28.1. The aneurysmal sac exhibited early thrombus formation at 1 week, which progressed to complete thrombosis in 1-6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The model is technically feasible but would be useful in testing occlusive techniques for residual aneurysm sacs only in the acute phase after endograft placement. It would be not reliable for chronic evaluation because of rapidly progressive thrombosis in most aneurysm sacs and occasional complete thrombosis of the AAA and endograft.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1303-1310
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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