A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Understanding Pap Testing Adherence Among Vietnamese American Immigrants

Connie K.Y. Nguyen-Truong, Frances Lee-Lin, Michael C. Leo, Vivian Gedaly-Duff, Lillian M. Nail, Pei Ru Wang, Tri Tran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Objective: To explore factors potentially influencing Pap testing practices among Vietnamese American immigrant women (VIW, foreign-born) and describe their awareness of cervical cancer screening resources in their community. Design: Descriptive study guided by the ecological model and community-based participatory research principles. Setting: Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Participants: Vietnamese American immigrant women (211) who were age 21 and older. Methods: We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses to analyze a self-administered questionnaire that was pretested and translated using a team approach. Results: Approximately 74% of VIW who completed the survey reported at least one Pap test, and 69% reported Pap testing history adherent to national guidelines. The factor most strongly associated with Pap testing receipt was suggestion from a friend, followed by longer residency in the United States, lower perceived common barriers, and lower perceived cultural barriers, for example, lack of family support and use of Eastern/Asian medicine. The factor most strongly associated with guideline adherence was having health insurance, followed by a recommendation from a physician or nurse practitioner. Only 11% of VIW knew where to obtain a free or low-cost Pap tests. Conclusion: Nurses can influence rates of Pap testing among VIW by providing health education through outreach programs targeted at lay health workers and their social networks, identifying at-risk patients such as recently immigrated women, reducing perceived common and cultural barriers to Pap testing, and helping women seek alternative payment options if they lack health insurance. Primary health care providers should be reminded of their essential role in increasing Pap testing adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E26-E40
JournalJOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • CBPR
  • Cervical cancer
  • Immigrant women
  • Influencing factors
  • Pap testing
  • Vietnamese American

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics
  • Critical Care
  • Maternity and Midwifery


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