A digital 3-dimensional method for computing great artery flows: In vitro validation studies

Timothy Irvine, Xiang Ning Li, Yoshiki Mori, Suthep Wanitkun, Xiaokui Li, Paul R. Detmer, Roy W. Martin, Annette Pope, Gary A. Schwartz, Rosemary A. Rusk, Antoinette Kenny, David J. Sahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background: Conventional 2-dimensional Doppler methods for the quantitation of laminar flows in large vessels are prone to inaccuracy. Three-dimensional (3D) volume imaging provides the opportunity to make cross-sectional flow calculations through digital spatiotemporal integration of flow velocity, area, and profile. Methods: A new digital 3D color Doppler reconstruction method was used to generate radially acquired flow data sets. Raw scanline data with digital velocity assignments, obtained by scanning parallel to flow, were transferred from a specially programmed but otherwise conventional ultrasonographic system, which controlled a multiplane transesophageal probe, to a computer workstation via an Ethernet link for assimilation into color 3D data sets. This configuration was used to study 20 pulsatile laminar flows (stroke voltages 30 to 70 mL and peak flow rates 65 to 205mL/s) in a curved tube model with an oval cross-sectional geometry. After generation of the color 3D data set, flow velocity values from cross sections perpendicular to the tubes were analyzed to determine flow rate and stroke volume. Results: The flows from 3D digital velocity profiles showed close correlation with peak instantaneous flow rates (r = 0.99, y = 1.01x - 0.9, standard error of estimate 4.1 mL/s). When interpreted with pulsed wave Doppler data obtained through the cardiac cycle, they also allowed computation of stroke volume (r = 0.98, y = 1.44x- 2.5, standard error of estimate 3.8 mL). Conclusion: The ability to compute laminar flows from 3D digital data sets obtained parallel to the direction of flow and without the need for geometric assumptions represents an important opportunity for and advantage of 3D color Doppler echocardiography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-848
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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