A microcontroller-based simulation of dural venous sinus injury for neurosurgical training

Daniel R. Cleary, Dominic A. Siler, Nathaniel Whitney, Nathan R. Selden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE Surgical simulation has the potential to supplement and enhance traditional resident training. However, the high cost of equipment and limited number of available scenarios have inhibited wider integration of simulation in neurosurgical education. In this study the authors provide initial validation of a novel, low-cost simulation platform that recreates the stress of surgery using a combination of hands-on, model-based, and computer elements. Trainee skill was quantified using multiple time and performance measures. The simulation was initially validated using trainees at the start of their intern year. METHODS The simulation recreates intraoperative superior sagittal sinus injury complicated by air embolism. The simulator model consists of 2 components: a reusable base and a disposable craniotomy pack. The simulator software is flexible and modular to allow adjustments in difficulty or the creation of entirely new clinical scenarios. The reusable simulator base incorporates a powerful microcomputer and multiple sensors and actuators to provide continuous feedback to the software controller, which in turn adjusts both the screen output and physical elements of the model. The disposable craniotomy pack incorporates 3D-printed sections of model skull and brain, as well as artificial dura that incorporates a model sagittal sinus. RESULTS Twelve participants at the 2015 Western Region Society of Neurological Surgeons postgraduate year 1 resident course ("boot camp") provided informed consent and enrolled in a study testing the prototype device. Each trainee was required to successfully create a bilateral parasagittal craniotomy, repair a dural sinus tear, and recognize and correct an air embolus. Participant stress was measured using a heart rate wrist monitor. After participation, each resident completed a 13-question categorical survey. CONCLUSIONS All trainee participants experienced tachycardia during the simulation, although the point in the simulation at which they experienced tachycardia varied. Survey results indicated that participants agreed the simulation was realistic, created stress, and was a useful tool in training neurosurgical residents. This simulator represents a novel, low-cost approach for hands-on training that effectively teaches and tests residents without risk of patient injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1553-1559
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Hemorrhage
  • Neurological surgery
  • Residency training
  • Sagittal sinus
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'A microcontroller-based simulation of dural venous sinus injury for neurosurgical training'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this