A multilevel approach to predicting community addiction treatment attitudes about contingency management

Bryan Hartzler, Dennis M. Donovan, Carrie J. Tillotson, Solange Mongoue-Tchokote, Suzanne R. Doyle, Dennis McCarty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, and lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-221
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Adoption attitudes
  • Contingency management
  • Organizational dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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