A novel sponge-based wound stasis dressing to treat lethal noncompressible hemorrhage

Genevieve R. Mueller, Teresa J. Pineda, Hua X. Xie, Jeffrey S. Teach, Andrew D. Barofsky, James R. Schmid, Kenton W. Gregory

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Background: Noncompressible hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death caused by hemorrhage on the battlefield. Currently, there are no hemostatic agents with the ability to control noncompressible hemorrhage. A wound stasis dressing based upon rapidly expanding cellulose minisponges (MS) was developed and tested in a lethal noncompressible model in swine, by fully transecting subclavian artery and vein. MS were compared with conventional hemostasis dressings, Combat Gauze (CG), in a randomized comparison. Methods: Sixteen 40-kg swine underwent transection of the subclavian artery and vein through a 4.5-cm aperture. After 30-second free bleeding, randomly selected MS or CG (n = 8 per group) were administered by an independent medical officer. The wound cavity was filled with either MS + no external pressure or one CG + one KERLIX gauze with 3 minutes of external pressure. One reapplication was allowed for CG. Mean arterial pressure was maintained at 60 mm Hg with 500-mL Hextend and lactated Ringer's solution intravenously administered up to a maximum of 10-L until study termination at 1 hour. Results: Mean pretreatment blood loss was similar for MS (719 mL) and CG (702 mL). Primary end points, namely, hemostasis at 4 minutes (MS, 75%; CG, 25%; p = 0.13), hemostasis at 60 minutes (MS, 100%; CG, 25%; p = 0.007), and survival at 60 minutes (MS, 100%; CG, 37.5%; p = 0.026), were improved with MS as were secondary end points, namely, total blood loss (MS, 118 mL; CG 1,242 mL; p = 0.021) and length of application time (MS, 25 seconds; CG, 420 seconds; p = 0.004). Conclusion: The use of MS is a novel approach for the rapid, simple treatment of severe noncompressible hemorrhage, which provided statistically significant improvement in hemostasis and survival 60 minutes after injury and a large reduction in blood loss, resuscitation fluid requirement, and medic treatment time compared with conventional hemorrhage control dressings in a swine model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S134-S139
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number2 SUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Aug 2012


  • Hemorrhage
  • combat gauze
  • minisponge
  • noncompressible

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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