MnO4- was activated by HSO3-, resulting in a process that oxidizes organic contaminants at extraordinarily high rates. The permanganate/bisulfite (PM/BS) process oxidized phenol, ciprofloxacin, and methyl blue at pHini 5.0 with rates (kobs ≈ 60-150 s-1) that were 5-6 orders of magnitude faster than those measured for permanganate alone, and ∼5 to 7 orders of magnitude faster than conventional advanced oxidation processes for water treatment. Oxidation of phenol was fastest at pH 4.0, but still effective at pH 7.0, and only slightly slower when performed in tap water. A smaller, but still considerable (∼3 orders of magnitude) increase in oxidation rates of methyl blue was observed with MnO2 activated by HSO3- (MO/BS). The above results, time-resolved spectroscopy of manganese species under various conditions, stoichiometric analysis of pH changes, and the effect of pyrophosphate on UV absorbance spectra suggest that the reactive intermediate(s) responsible for the extremely rapid oxidation of organic contaminants in the PM/BS process involve manganese(III) species with minimal stabilization by complexation. The PM/BS process may lead to a new category of advanced oxidation technologies based on contaminant oxidation by reactive manganese(III) species, rather than hydroxyl and sulfate radicals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry