Acute macular neuroretinopathy: A comprehensive review of the literature

Kavita V. Bhavsar, Sally Lin, Ehsan Rahimy, Anthony Joseph, K. Bailey Freund, David Sarraf, Emmett T. Cunningham

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

209 Scopus citations


Acute macular neuroretinopathy is a relatively rare condition originally defined by the presence of intraretinal, reddish-brown, wedge-shaped lesions, the apices of which tend to point toward the fovea. Acute onset of paracentral scotomas corresponding to the clinically evident lesions is both common and characteristic. Although the pathogenesis of acute macular neuroretinopathy is complex, recent research suggests a microvascular etiology. Advances in multimodal imaging have enabled better characterization of this retinal disorder and have led to newly proposed diagnostic criteria. We review 101 reported cases in the English and non-English language literature identified from 1975, when acute macular neuroretinopathy was first described, to December, 2014. We discuss common risk factors, demographic and clinical characteristics, and multimodal imaging findings, which together provide insights into pathogenesis and guide areas of future investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-565
Number of pages28
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • AMN
  • AMNR
  • AMOR
  • DCI
  • PAMM
  • acute macular neuroretinopathy
  • deep capillary ischemia
  • multimodal imaging
  • optical coherence tomography
  • paracentral acute middle maculopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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