Addressing the third epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity through telemedicine and technology: A systematic review

Tala Al-Khaled, Nita G. Valikodath, Samir N. Patel, Emily Cole, Margaret Chervinko, Christina E. Douglas, Andrew S.H. Tsai, Wei Chi Wu, J. Peter Campbell, Michael F. Chiang, R. V. Paul Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The rising prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in low- and middle-income countries has increased the need for screening at-risk infants. The purpose of this article was to review the impact of telemedicine and technology on ROP screening programs. Adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed using PubMed, ProQuest, and Google Scholar bibliographic search engine. Terms searched included retinopathy of prematurity, telemedicine, and tele-ophthalmology. Data regarding internet access and gross domestic product per capita were obtained from the World Bank. Information was also obtained about internet access, speeds, and costs in low-income countries. There has been increasing integration of telemedicine and technology for ROP screening and management. Low-income countries are using available internet options and information and communications technology for ROP screening, which can aid in addressing the unique challenges faced by low-income countries. This provides a promising solution to the third epidemic of ROP by expanding and improving screening and management. Although telemedicine systems may serve as a cost-effective approach to facilitate delivery of health care, programs (especially in low- and middle-income countries) require national support to maintain its infrastructure. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2021;58(4):261-269.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


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