Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer disease: The Indo-US cross- national dementia study

Mary Ganguli, Vijay Chandra, M. Ilyas Kamboh, Janet M. Johnston, Hiroko H. Dodge, B. K. Thelma, Ramcsh C. Juyal, Rajesh Pandav, Steven H. Belle, Steven T. DeKosky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

309 Scopus citations


Background: The APOE*E4 allele of the gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been reported as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) to varying degrees in different ethnic groups. Objective: To compare APOE*E4-AD epidemiological associations in India and the United States in a cross- national epidemiological study. Design: Case-control design within 2 cohort studies, using standardized cognitive screening and clinical evaluation to identify AD and other dementias and polymerase chain reaction to identify APOE genotyping. Participants: Rural community samples, aged 55 years or older (n = 4450) in Ballabgarh, India, and 70 years or older (n = 886) in the Monongahela Valley region of southwestern Pennsylvania. Main Outcome Measures: Criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association for probable and possible AD and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale for dementia staging. Results: Frequency of APOE*E4 was significantly lower (P < .001) in Ballabgarh vs the Monongahela Valley (0.07 vs 0.11). Frequency of probable or possible AD, with CDR of at least 1.0, in the Indian vs US samples, was as follows: aged 55 to 69 years, 0.1% (Indian sample only); aged 70 to 79 years, 0.7% vs 3.1%; aged 80 years or older, 4.0% vs 15.7%. Among those aged 70 years or older, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for AD among carriers of APOE*E4 vs noncarriers were 3.4 (1.2-9.3) and 2.3 (1.3-4.0) in the Indian and US samples, respectively, and not significantly different between cohorts (P = .20). Conclusions: This first report of APOE*E4 and AD from the Indian subcontinent shows very low prevalence of AD in Ballabgarh, India, but association of APOE*E4 with AD at similar strength in Indian and US samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)824-830
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Neurology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Neurology


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