Assessing cultural appropriateness of three translated cancer-related fatigue instruments

Shiow Ching Shun, Susan L. Beck, Caren J. Frost, Patricia H. Berry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cultural appropriateness (ie, semantic equivalence, content equivalence, and conceptual equivalence) of 3 translated fatigue instruments (the Cancer Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Symptom Inventory, and the Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale-revised) by using 2 phases: (a) establishment of semantic and content equivalencies by the rigorous process of translation and back-translation, and (b) evaluation of content equivalence and conceptual equivalence by testing on monolingual subjects with the translated fatigue scales and a questionnaire with fatigue terms list and open-ended questions. Convenience sampling was used to recruit subjects at a chemotherapy treatment center for outpatients in Taiwan. The results indicated that the content in the 3 scales were relevant to the experience of fatigue among Taiwanese from the view of patients, but only the fatigue domains in the Cancer Fatigue Scale-Chinese version was similar to the original construct based on the exploratory factor analysis. However, the results for examining the content equivalencies by the fatigue terms list showed that only 4 items in the list were used to describe fatigue by more than 50% of the patients. Therefore, the contents of the chosen scales might not represent the whole concept of fatigue in Taiwan. Exploration of the content and construct of fatigue in Taiwan and further testing of the translated scales are recommended. In addition, the result in this study is helpful for clinical nurses to understand expressions of fatigue in cancer patients within the Chinese culture but the meaning of fatigue still needs to be further explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1-E9
JournalCancer Nursing
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer
  • Culture appropriateness
  • Fatigue
  • Measurement
  • Translation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)


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