Association between glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor agonist and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor use and covid-19 outcomes

Anna R. Kahkoska, Trine Julie Abrahamsen, G. Caleb Alexander, Tellen D. Bennett, Christopher G. Chute, Melissa A. Haendel, Klara R. Klein, Hemalkumar Mehta, Joshua D. Miller, Richard A. Moffitt, Til Stüurmer, Kajsa Kvist, John B. Buse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To determine the respective associations of premorbid glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use, compared with premorbid dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP4i) use, with severity of outcomes in the setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed observational data from SARS-CoV-2–positive adults in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a multicenter, longitudinal U.S. cohort (January 2018–February 2021), with a prescription for GLP1-RA, SGLT2i, or DPP4i within 24 months of positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. The primary outcome was 60day mortality, measured from positive SARS-CoV-2 test date. Secondary outcomes were total mortality during the observation period and emergency room visits, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation within 14 days. Associations were quantified with odds ratios (ORs) estimated with targeted maximum likelihood estimation using a super learner approach, accounting for baseline characteristics. RESULTS The study included 12,446 individuals (53.4% female, 62.5% White, mean ± SD age 58.6 ± 13.1 years). The 60-day mortality was 3.11% (387 of 12,446), with 2.06% (138 of 6,692) for GLP1-RA use, 2.32% (85 of 3,665) for SGLT2i use, and 5.67% (199 of 3,511) for DPP4i use. Both GLP1-RA and SGLT2i use were associated with lower 60-day mortality compared with DPP4i use (OR 0.54 [95% CI 0.37–0.80] and 0.66 [0.50–0.86], respectively). Use of both medications was also associated with decreased total mortality, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS Among SARS-CoV-2–positive adults, premorbid GLP1-RA and SGLT2i use, compared with DPP4i use, was associated with lower odds of mortality and other adverse outcomes, although DPP4i users were older and generally sicker.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1564-1572
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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