Importance: Whether genetic factors can identify patients at risk for radiation-induced fibrosis remains unconfirmed. Objective: To assess the association between the C-509T variant allele in the promoter region of TGFB1 and breast fibrosis 3 years after radiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is an a priori-specified, prospective, cohort study nested in an open-label, randomized clinical trial, which was conducted in community-based and academic cancer centers to compare hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (42.56 Gy in 16 fractions) with conventionally fractionated WBI (50 Gy in 25 fractions) after breast-conserving surgery. In total, 287 women 40 years or older with pathologically confirmed stage 0 to IIA breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery were enrolled from February 2011 to February 2014. Patients were observed for a minimum of 3 years. Outcomes were compared using the 1-sided Fisher exact test and multivariable logistic regression. Exposures: A C-to-T single-nucleotide polymorphism at position -509 relative to the first major transcription start site (C-509T) of the TGFB1 gene. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was grade 2 or higher breast fibrosis as assessed using the Late Effects Normal Tissue/Subjective, Objective, Medical Management, Analytic scale (range, 0 to 3) three years after radiotherapy. Results: Among 287 women enrolled in the trial, TGFB1 genotype and 3-year radiotherapy-induced toxicity data were available for 174 patients, of whom 89 patients (51%) with a mean (SD) age of 60 (8) years had at least 1 copy of C-509T. Grade 2 or higher breast fibrosis was present in 12 of 87 patients with C-509T (13.8%) compared with 3 of 80 patients without the allele variant (3.8%) (absolute difference, 10.0%; 95% CI, 1.7%-18.4%; P =.02). The results of multivariable analyses indicated that only C-509T (odds ratio, 4.47; 95% CI, 1.25-15.99; P =.02) and postoperative cosmetic outcome (odds ratio, 7.09; 95% CI, 2.41-20.90; P <.001) were significantly associated with breast fibrosis risk. Conclusions and Relevance: To date, this study seems to be the first prospective validation of a genomic marker for radiation fibrosis. The C-509T allele in TGFB1 is a key determinant of breast fibrosis risk. Assessing TGFB1 genotype may facilitate a more personalized approach to locoregional treatment decisions in breast cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research