Axial Spondyloarthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

Anand Kumthekar, Atul Deodhar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The term axial spondylarthritis (AxSpA) includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axSpA. The hallmark feature of ankylosing spondylitis is definitive evidence of radiographic sacroiliitis, whereas nonradiographic axSpA has no definitive radiographic sacroiliitis but there is sacroiliitis on MRI. Inflammatory back pain is a classical feature of axSpA along with certain extra-axial features. Early identification and referral improves outcomes in axSpA. Physician assistants and primary care providers play a pivotal role in early recognition or suspicion of axSpA, and ensuring appropriate referrals. This narrative provides a general review of axSpA, clinical clues to diagnose axSpA, imaging modalities used, and available treatment options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-147
Number of pages13
JournalPhysician Assistant Clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Axial spondyloarthritis
  • Nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis
  • Radiographic axial spondyloarthritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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