Benign anorectal disease: Hemorrhoids, fissures, and fistulas

Ivy H. Gardner, Ragavan V. Siddharthan, Vassiliki Liana Tsikitis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and fistulas are common benign anorectal diseases that have a significant impact on patients’ lives. They are primarily encountered by primary care providers, including internists, gastroenterologists, pediatricians, gynecologists, and emergency care providers. Most complex anorectal disease cases are referred to colorectal surgeons. Knowledge of these disease processes is essential for proper treatment and follow up. Hemorrhoids and fissures frequently benefit from non-operative treatment; they may, however, require surgical procedures. The treatment of anorectal abscess and fistulas is mainly surgical. The aim of this review is to examine the etiology, diagnosis, medical, and surgical treatment for these benign anorectal diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-18
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Gastroenterology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020


  • Abscess
  • Benign anorectal disease
  • Fissures
  • Fistula
  • Hemorrhoids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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