Biotin status assessed longitudinally in pregnant women

Donald M. Mock, Diane D. Stadler, Shawna L. Stratton, Nell I. Mock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


This study assessed biotin nutritional status longitudinally during pregnancy as judged by urinary excretion of biotin and biotin metabolites and by serum concentration of biotin. 3-Hydroxyisovaleric acid excretion was also assessed because increased excretion of that acid reflects decreased tissue activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. Thirteen women provided untimed urine samples during both early and late pregnancy. Twelve nonpregnant women served as controls. Biotin and metabolites were determined by a combined HPLC/avidin-binding assay. 3- Hydroxyisovaleric acid was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Significance of changes from early to late pregnancy was tested by paired t test; to compare nonpregnant controls with early and late pregnancy, ANOVA was used. During early pregnancy, biotin excretion was not significantly different than controls; however, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid excretion was significantly increased relative to controls (P < 0.0001) and was greater than the upper limit of normal in 9 of 13 women. From early to late pregnancy, biotin excretion decreased in 10 of 13 women (P < 0.01); by late pregnancy, biotin excretion was less than normal in six women. During late pregnancy, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid remained significantly increased relative to controls (P < 0.0001). Serum concentrations of biotin were significantly greater than those of controls during early pregnancy (P < 0.0001) and decreased in each woman from early to late pregnancy (P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that biotin status decreases during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)710-716
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid
  • avitaminosis
  • biotin
  • humans
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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