Can innate and autoimmune reactivity forecast early and advance stages of age-related macular degeneration?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in persons over 55 years of age in developed countries. AMD is a complex disease in which genetic, environmental and inflammatory factors influence its onset and progression. Elevation in serum anti-retinal autoantibodies, plasma and local activation of complement proteins of the alternative pathway, and increase in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines have been seen over the course of disease. Genetic studies of AMD patients confirmed that genetic variants affecting the alternative complement pathway have a major influence on AMD risk. Because the heterogeneity of this disease, there is no sufficient strategy to identify the disease onset and progression sole based eye examination, thus identification of reliable serological biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment by sampling patient's blood is necessary. This review provides an outline of the current knowledge on possible serological (autoantibodies, complement factors, cytokines, chemokines) and related genetic biomarkers relevant to the pathology of AMD, and discusses their application for prediction of disease activity and prognosis in AMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-236
Number of pages6
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Aging
  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoimmunity
  • Chemokines
  • Complement factors
  • Cytokines
  • Factor H
  • IL-17
  • Retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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