Clock drawing performance in cognitively normal elderly

Emily J. Hubbard, Veronica Santini, Christiaan G. Blankevoort, Karin M. Volkers, Melissa S. Barrup, Laura Byerly, Christine Chaisson, Angela L. Jefferson, Edith Kaplan, Robert C. Green, Robert A. Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a common neuropsychological measure sensitive to cognitive changes and functional skills (e.g., driving test performance) among older adults. However, normative data have not been adequately developed. We report the distribution of CDT scores using three common scoring systems [Mendez, M. F., Ala, T., & Underwood, K. L. (1992). Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1095-1099; Cahn, D. A., Salmon, D. P., Monsch, A. U., Butters, N., Wiederholt, W. C., & Corey-Bloom, J. (1996). Screening for dementia of the Alzheimer type in the community: The utility of the Clock Drawing Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(6), 529-539], among 207 cognitively normal elderly. The systems were well correlated, took little time to use, and had high inter-rater reliability. We found statistically significant differences in CDT scores based on age and WRAT-3 Reading score, a marker of education quality. We present means, standard deviations, and t- and z-scores based on these subgroups. We found that "normal" CDT performance includes a wider distribution of scores than previously reported. Our results may serve as useful comparisons for clinicians wishing to know whether their patients perform in the general range of cognitively normal elderly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-327
Number of pages33
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Clock Drawing Test
  • Clock drawing
  • Cognitive decline
  • Cognitive screening
  • Dementia
  • Elderly
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuropsychological tests
  • Normal aging
  • Normative data
  • Scoring systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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