Cloning and functional testing of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) IL-9 and IL-33

Sanghita Sarkar, Ann J. Hessell, Nancy L. Haigwood, James J. Kobie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: IL-9 and IL-33 can profoundly influence immune responses. As a necessary first step toward defining their impact in the rhesus macaque model, we confirmed their endogenous expression and sequence identity and generated expression vectors for the recombinant expression of rhesus IL-9 and IL-33. Methods: RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to define the expression and sequences for rhesus IL-9 and IL-33. The resulting recombinant cytokines were tested by ELISA and proliferation assays. Results: Full-length rhesus IL-9 and the mature form of rhesus IL-33 share 78% and 73% nucleotide similarity, respectively, with humans. Both cytokines are expressed in lymphocytes, with IL-9 expression also evident in CD4+ T cells. Recombinantly expressed rhesus IL-9 and IL-33 were each biologically active in vitro, including enhancing the proliferation of a rhesus B cell line. Conclusions: The recombinant rhesus IL-9 and IL-33 constructs produce biologically active cytokines that can act upon rhesus B cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)144-152
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of medical primatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • B cell
  • IL-33
  • IL-9
  • proliferation
  • rhesus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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