Combination adenovirus and protein vaccines prevent infection or reduce viral burden after heterologous clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus mucosal challenge

Delphine C. Malherbe, Jason Mendy, Lo Vang, Philip T. Barnette, Jason Reed, Samir K. Lakhashe, Joshua Owuor, Johannes S. Gach, Alfred W. Legasse, Michael K. Axthelm, Celia C. LaBranche, David Montefiori, Donald N. Forthal, Byung Park, James M. Wilson, James H. McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, Jack T. Stapleton, Jonah B. Sacha, Barton F. HaynesHua Xin Liao, Ruth M. Ruprecht, Jonathan Smith, Marc Gurwith, Nancy L. Haigwood, Jeff Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (clade C) envelope glycoprotein (Env), SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7) with nonreplicating human (Ad4) adenovirus-vectored vaccines paired with recombinant proteins in a novel prime-boost regimen in rhesus macaques, with the goal of eliciting protective immunity against SHIV challenge. In both vaccine groups, plasma and buccal Env-specific IgG, tier 1 heterologous neutralizing antibodies, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition were readily generated. High Env-specific T cell responses elicited in all vaccinees were significantly greater than responses targeting Gag. After three intrarectal exposures to heterologous tier 1 clade C SHIV, all 10 sham-vaccinated controls were infected, whereas 4/10 SAd7- and 3/10 Ad4-vaccinated macaques remained uninfected or maintained tightly controlled plasma viremia. Time to infection was significantly delayed in SAd7- vaccinated macaques compared to the controls. Cell-associated and plasma virus levels were significantly lower in each group of vaccinated macaques compared to controls; the lowest plasma viral burden was found in animals vaccinated with the SAd7 vectors, suggesting superior immunity conferred by the replicating simian vectors. Furthermore, higher V1V2-specific binding antibody titers correlated with viral control in the SAd7 vaccine group. Thus, recombinant Ad plus protein vaccines generated humoral and cellular immunity that was effective in either protecting from SHIV acquisition or significantly reducing viremia in animals that became infected, consequently supporting additional development of replicating Ad vectors as HIV vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01092-17
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Adenovirus
  • Adenovirus vector
  • Correlate of protection
  • HIV vaccine
  • Neutralizing antibody
  • Rhesus macaque
  • SHIV challenge
  • Simian human immunodeficiency virus
  • V1V2-specific antibody
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology


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