Comprehensive variant spectrum of the CNGA3 gene in patients affected by achromatopsia

Maria Solaki, Britta Baumann, Peggy Reuter, Sten Andreasson, Isabelle Audo, Carmen Ayuso, Ghassan Balousha, Francesco Benedicenti, David Birch, Pierre Bitoun, Delphine Blain, Beatrice Bocquet, Kari Branham, Jaume Català-Mora, Elfride De Baere, Helene Dollfus, Mohammed Falana, Roberto Giorda, Irina Golovleva, Irene GottlobJohn R. Heckenlively, Samuel G. Jacobson, Kaylie Jones, Herbert Jägle, Andreas R. Janecke, Ulrich Kellner, Petra Liskova, Birgit Lorenz, Loreto Martorell-Sampol, André Messias, Isabelle Meunier, Fernanda Belga Ottoni Porto, Eleni Papageorgiou, Astrid S. Plomp, Thomy J.L. de Ravel, Charlotte M. Reiff, Agnes B. Renner, Thomas Rosenberg, Günther Rudolph, Roberto Salati, E. Cumhur Sener, Paul A. Sieving, Franco Stanzial, Elias I. Traboulsi, Stephen H. Tsang, Balázs Varsanyi, Richard G. Weleber, Ditta Zobor, Katarina Stingl, Bernd Wissinger, Susanne Kohl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Achromatopsia (ACHM) is a congenital cone photoreceptor disorder characterized by impaired color discrimination, low visual acuity, photosensitivity, and nystagmus. To date, six genes have been associated with ACHM (CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6C, PDE6H, and ATF6), the majority of these being implicated in the cone phototransduction cascade. CNGA3 encodes the CNGA3 subunit of the cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel in cone photoreceptors and is one of the major disease-associated genes for ACHM. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the CNGA3 variant spectrum in a cohort of 1060 genetically confirmed ACHM patients, 385 (36.3%) of these carrying “likely disease-causing” variants in CNGA3. Compiling our own genetic data with those reported in the literature and in public databases, we further extend the CNGA3 variant spectrum to a total of 316 variants, 244 of which we interpreted as “likely disease-causing” according to ACMG/AMP criteria. We report 48 novel “likely disease-causing” variants, 24 of which are missense substitutions underlining the predominant role of this mutation class in the CNGA3 variant spectrum. In addition, we provide extensive in silico analyses and summarize reported functional data of previously analyzed missense, nonsense and splicing variants to further advance the pathogenicity assessment of the identified variants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)832-858
Number of pages27
JournalHuman mutation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • CNGA3
  • achromatopsia
  • cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
  • in silico analysis
  • variant classification
  • variant spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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