Considerations in Gender-Affirming Surgery: Demographic Trends

Ian T. Nolan, Geolani W. Dy, Nathan Levitt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The transgender and nonbinary (TGNB) population is a significant minority, comprising at least 0.6% of the population. Visibility is growing rapidly, especially in younger generations. Gender affirming health care must adapt to this population's needs. Demographic data regarding TGNB health care are limited, but several disparities are clear, stemming from sociopolitical factors, such as external discrimination and insensitive and/or uninformed care. Most self-identifying TGNB patients receive some type of nonsurgical care, including hormonal and/or mental health. Gender-affirming surgery is highly prevalent as well, with at least one-quarter of TGNB people having had some combination of the procedures in this category.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-465
Number of pages7
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Bottom surgery
  • Demographic
  • Disparities
  • Gender-affirming surgery
  • Phalloplasty
  • Prevalence
  • Top surgery
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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