Continuation rates of two different-sized copper intrauterine devices among nulliparous women: Interim 12-month results of a single-blind, randomised, multicentre trial

David Hubacher, Courtney A. Schreiber, David K. Turok, Jeffrey T. Jensen, Mitchell D. Creinin, Kavita Nanda, Katharine O.Connell White, Ila Dayananda, Stephanie B. Teal, Pai Lien Chen, Beatrice A. Chen, Alisa B. Goldberg, Jennifer L. Kerns, Clint Dart, Anita L. Nelson, Michael A. Thomas, David F. Archer, Jill E. Brown, Paula M. Castaño, Anne E. BurkeBliss Kaneshiro, Diana L. Blithe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The most widely used copper intrauterine device (IUD) in the world (the TCu380A), and the only product available in many countries, causes side effects and early removals for many users. These problems are exacerbated in nulliparous women, who have smaller uterine cavities compared to parous women. We compared first-year continuation rates and reasons/probabilities for early removal of the TCu380A versus a smaller Belgian copper IUD among nulliparous users. Methods: This 12-month interim report is derived from a pre-planned interim analysis of a sub population and focused on key secondary comparative endpoints. In this participant-blinded trial at 16 centres in the USA, we randomised participants aged 17–40 in a 4:1 ratio to the NT380-Mini or the TCu380A. In the first year, participants had follow-up visits at 6-weeks and 3, 6, and 12-months, and a phone contact at 9 months; we documented continued use, expulsions, and reasons for removal. Among participants with successful IUD placement, we compared probabilities of IUD continuation and specific reasons for discontinuation using log-rank tests. This trial is registered with number NCT03124160 and is closed to recruitment. Findings: Between June 1, 2017, and February 25, 2019, we assigned 927 nulliparous women to either the NT380-Mini (n = 744) or the TCu380A (n = 183); the analysis population was 732 (NT380-Mini) and 176 (TCu380A). Participants using the NT380-Mini, compared to the TCu380A, had higher 12-month continuation rates (78·7% [95% CI: 72·9–84·5%] vs. 70·2% [95% CI: 59·7–80·7], p = 0·014), lower rates of removal for bleeding and/or pain (8·1% vs. 16·2%, p = 0·003) and lower IUD expulsion rates (4·8% vs. 8·9%, p = 0·023), respectively. Interpretation: The NT380-Mini offers important benefits for a nulliparous population compared to the TCu380A in the first twelve months, when pivotal experiences typically occur. Higher continuation rates with the NT380-Mini may avert disruptions in contraceptive use and help users avoid unintended pregnancy. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Mona Lisa, N.V. (Belgium).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101554
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • 12-Month
  • Bleeding and pain
  • Blinded
  • Comparative
  • Continuation rates
  • Copper intrauterine device
  • Early removal
  • Expulsion
  • IUD
  • Nulliparous
  • Randomized
  • Satisfaction
  • Trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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