Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment, and the incidence of cutaneous infections due to NTM has been steadily increasing. Cutaneous infections due to NTM can be difficult to diagnose, due to their wide spectrum of clinical presentations and histopathological findings that are often nonspecific. A variety of modalities including tissue culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays may be necessary to identify the organism. Treatment can also be challenging, as it can depend on multiple factors, including the causative organism, the patient’s immunological status, and the extent of disease involvement. In this review, we discuss the common presentations of cutaneous NTM infections, diagnostic tools, and treatment recommendations. A multi-disciplinary approach that involves good communication between the clinician, the histopathologist, the microbiologist, and infectious disease specialists can help lead to successful diagnosis and management.
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