The reduction potential (E°′) is a critical parameter in determining the efficiency of most biological and chemical reactions. Biology employs three classes of metalloproteins to cover the majority of the 2-V range of physiological E°′s. An ultimate test of our understanding of E°′ is to find out the minimal number of proteins and their variants that can cover this entire range and the structural features responsible for the extreme E°′. We report herein the design of the protein azurin to cover a range from +970 mV to -954 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) by mutating only five residues and using two metal ions. Spectroscopic methods have revealed geometric parameters important for the high E°′. The knowledge gained and the resulting water-soluble redox agents with predictable E°′s, in the same scaffold with the same surface properties, will find wide applications in chemical, biochemical, biophysical, and biotechnological fields.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Jan 12 2016
- Electron transfer
- Reduction potential
- Secondary coordination sphere
ASJC Scopus subject areas