Determination of Free 25(OH)D Concentrations and Their Relationships to Total 25(OH)D in Multiple Clinical Populations

Janice B. Schwartz, J. Christopher Gallagher, Rolf Jorde, Vivian Berg, Jennifer Walsh, Richard Eastell, Amy L. Evans, Simon Bowles, Kim E. Naylor, Kerry S. Jones, Inez Schoenmakers, Michael Holick, Eric Orwoll, Carrie Nielson, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones, Roger Bouillon, Jennifer Lai, Davide Verotta, Daniel Bikle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Context: The optimal measure of vitamin D status is unknown. Objective: To directly measure circulating free 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and relationships to total 25(OH)D in a clinically diverse sample of humans. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Seven academic sites. Patients: A total of 1661 adults: healthy (n = 279), prediabetic (n = 479), outpatients (n = 714), cirrhotic (n = 90), pregnant (n = 20), nursing home resident (n = 79). Interventions: Merge research data on circulating free 25(OH)D (directly-measured immunoassay), total 25(OH)D (liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry), D-binding protein [DBP; by radial (polyclonal) immunodiffusion assay], albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone, and DBP haplotype. Main outcome measures: Distribution of free 25(OH)D (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for post hoc comparisons) and relationships between free and total 25(OH)D (mixed-effects modeling incorporating clinical condition, DBP haplotype with sex, race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI), and other covariates). Results: Free 25(OH)D was 4.7 ± 1.8 pg/mL (mean ± SD) in healthy persons and 4.3 ± 1.9 pg/mL in outpatients, with levels of 0.5 to 8.1 pg/mL and 0.9 to 8.1 pg/mL encompassing 95% of healthy persons and outpatients, respectively. Free 25(OH)D was higher in patients with cirrhosis (7.1 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < 0.0033) and nursing home residents (7.9 ± 2.1 pg/mL; P < 0.0033) than in other groups and differed between whites and blacks (P < 0.0033) and between DBP haplotypes (P < 0.0001). Mixed-effects modeling of relationships between free and total 25(OH)D identified clinical conditions (patients with cirrhosis . nursing home residents . patients with prediabetes . outpatients . pregnant women) and BMI (lesser effect) as covariates affecting relationships but not eGFR, sex, race, or DBP haplotype. Conclusions: Total 25(OH)D, health condition, race, and DBP haplotype affected free 25(OH)D, but only health conditions and BMI affected relationships between total and free 25(OH)D. Clinical importance of free 25(OH)D needs to be established in studies assessing outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3278-3288
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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