Diagnostically Challenging Cases. What are Atypia and Dysplasia?

Joseph Sanfrancesco, J. Stephen Jones, Donna E. Hansel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This article addresses the spectrum of atypia and dysplasia within the bladder epithelium and the diagnostic categories developed to further classify challenging lesions. In addition, the effects of inflammation, specific therapies, and instrumentation on the bladder mucosa as well as the associated difficulty in achieving the appropriate diagnosis are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-293
Number of pages13
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Atypia
  • Bladder
  • Dysplasia
  • Pathology
  • Urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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