Drosophila GGA Model: An Ultimate Gateway to GGA Analysis

Joel C. Eissenberg, Anne M. Ilvarsonn, William S. Sly, Abdul Waheed, Vladislav Krzyzanek, Regina Pohlmann, Daniela Waschkau, Doris Kretzschmar, André C. Dennes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, ADP ribosylation factor-binding (GGA) proteins are monomeric adaptors implicated in clathrin-mediated vesicular transport between the trans Golgi network and endosomes, characterized mainly from cell culture analysis of lysosomal sorting. To provide the first demonstration of GGA's role in vivo, we used Drosophila which has a single GGA and a single lysosomal sorting receptor, lysosomal enzyme receptor protein (LERP). Using RNAi knockdowns, we show that the Drosophila GGA is required for lysosomal sorting. We further identified authentic components of the Drosophila lysosomal sorting system-the sorting receptor LERP, the sorting adaptor GGA and the lysosomal cargo cathepsins B1, D and L-to show that GGA depletion results in lysosomal dysfunction. Abnormal lysosomal morphology, missorting of lysosomal cathepsins and impaired lysosomal proteolysis show disturbed LERP trafficking after GGA depletion. GGA is highly expressed in the mushroom bodies and the pigment cells of the retina, and increasing or decreasing the levels of GGA in the eyes leads to retinal defects. Reduced GGA levels also enhance an eye defect caused by overexpression of the autophagy-associated protein Blue cheese (Bchs), implicating GGA in autophagic processes. This shows that Drosophila provides an excellent whole-animal model to gain new insights into the function of GGA in the physiological environment of a multicellular organism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1821-1838
Number of pages18
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011


  • Clathrin adaptor
  • GGA
  • Lysosome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology


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