Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement

Desirée Freitas Mryczka Machado, Luiz Eduardo Bertassoni, Evelise Machado de Souza, Janaina Bertoncelo de Almeida, Rodrigo Nunes Rached

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl2. The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (α = 5%). All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05). 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05). No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl2, 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05). In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-164
Number of pages7
JournalBrazilian oral research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Compressive strength
  • Dental cements
  • Endodontics
  • Physical and chemical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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