Effect of double-layer application on bond quality of adhesive systems

Satoshi Fujiwara, Toshiki Takamizawa, Wayne W. Barkmeier, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Arisa Imai, Hidehiko Watanabe, Robert L. Erickson, Mark A. Latta, Toshiyuki Nakatsuka, Masashi Miyazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of double-layer application of universal adhesives on the bond quality and compare to other adhesive systems. Methods: Two universal adhesives used were in this study: Scotchbond Universal (SU), [3M ESPE] and Prime & Bond elect (PE), [Dentsply Caulk]. The conventional single-step self-etch adhesives G-ӕnial Bond (GB), [GC Corporation.] and BeautiBond (BB), [Shofu Inc.], and a two-step self-etch adhesive, Optibond XTR (OX), [Kerr Corporation], were used as comparison adhesives. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strengths (SFS) to human enamel and dentin were measured in single application mode and double application mode. For each test condition, 15 specimens were prepared for SBS testing and 30 specimens for SFS testing. Results: Enamel and dentin SBS of the universal adhesives in the double application mode were significantly higher than those of the single application mode. In addition, the universal adhesives in the double application mode had significantly higher dentin SFS values than those of the single application mode. The two-step self-etch adhesive OX tended to have lower bond strengths in the double application mode, regardless of the test method or adherent substrate. Conclusion: The double application mode is effective in enhancing SBS and SFS of universal adhesives, but not conventional two-step self-etch adhesives. Significance: These results suggest that, although the double application mode may enhance the bonding quality of a universal adhesive, it may be counter-productive for two-step self-etch adhesives in clinical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-509
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Double-layer application
  • Self-etch adhesive
  • Shear bond strength
  • Shear fatigue strength
  • Universal adhesive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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