Effects of postweaning calorie restriction on accelerated growth and adiponectin in nutritionally programmed microswine offspring

Elizabeth A. Dupriest, Baoyu Lin, Philipp Kupfer, Kaiu Sekiguchi, Amruta Bhusari, Alexandra Quackenbush, Almir Celebic, Terry K. Morgan, Jonathan Q. Purnell, Susan P. Bagby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Poor prenatal development, followed by rapid childhood growth, conveys greater cardiometabolic risk in later life. Microswine offspring exposed to perinatal maternal protein restriction [MPR; “low protein offspring” (LPO)] grow poorly in late-fetal/neonatal stages. After weaning to an ad libitum (AL) diet, LPO-AL exhibit accelerated growth and fat deposition rates with low adiponectin mRNA, despite low-normal body fat and small intra-abdominal adipocytes. We examined effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth and metabolic status in LPO and normal protein offspring (NPO) randomized to AL or CR diets from weaning. CR transiently reduced growth in both LPO and NPO, delaying recovery in female LPO-CR. Over 7.5–12.5 weeks, linear growth rates in LPO-CR were slower than LPO-AL (P < 0.001) but exceeded NPO-AL; body weight growth rates fell but were lower in LPO-CR versus NPO-CR. Linear acceleration ceased after 12 weeks. At 16 weeks, percent catch-up in LPO-CR was reduced versus LPO-AL (P < 0.001). Plasma growth hormone was low in LPO (P < 0.02). CR normalized fat deposition rate, yet adiponectin mRNA remained low in LPO-CR (P < 0.001); plasma adiponectin was low in all LPO-AL and in female LPO-CR. Insulin sensitivity improved during CR. We conclude that in LPO: 1) CR delays onset of, but does not abolish, accelerated linear growth, despite low growth hormone; 2) CR yields stunting via delayed onset, plus a finite window for linear growth acceleration; 3) MPR lowers adiponectin mRNA independently of growth, adiposity, or adipocyte size; and 4) MPR reduces circulating adiponectin in LPO-AL and female LPO-CR, potentially enhancing cardiometabolic risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R354-R368
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 20 2018


  • Adiponectin
  • Adipose tissue
  • Catch-up growth
  • Fetal programming
  • Growth hormone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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