Ethnic Variations in the Expression of Depression

Anthony J. Marsella, David Kinzie, Paul Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Samples of Americans of Japanese, Chinese, and European ancestry evidencing clinical levels of depression were administered a depression symptom checklist, and the results were submitted to a factor analysis. Groups differed with respect to the functional dimensions expressed by the patterns. In general, existential symptoms dominated the patterns of the Japanese and Caucasians, while somatic symptoms were more characteristic of the Chinese. In addition, the Japanese evidenced an interpersonal symptom pattern, and both oriental groups manifested a cognitive symptom pattern. A theory was proposed which suggested that symptoms are related to extensions of the self-conditioned via socialization experiences. The role of individual differences, stress, and cultural definitions of disorder in determining the expression of depression was also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)435-458
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1973
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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