Exclusion and control: Patterns aimed at limiting the influence of faculty of color

Dena Hassouneh, Jen Akeroyd, Kristin F. Lutz, Ann K. Beckett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


This article reports on findings from a grounded theory study of the experiences of faculty of color (FOC) in predominantly Euro-American schools of nursing. Findings indicate that a dominant group sometimes referred to as the "Good Old Girls" posed a major barrier to change. To maintain the status-quo, the Good Old Girls used their influence to subject FOC to Patterns of Exclusion and Control with the goal of controlling the influence of FOC. This occurred through parallel and interrelated exclusion and control subprocesses. Exclusion and control strategies threatened FOC's success in academe while simultaneously jeopardizing their well-being. The exclusion strategies FOC experienced included Invalidation of Sense of Self, Othering, and Unequal Standards and Access to Resources. The control strategies included Insincerity and Putting You in Your Place. We describe each of these processes in detail and end with a discussion of the implications of our findings for educational practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)314-325
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nursing Education
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Education


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